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Estudios

Preparing beginning teachers for technology integration in education: ready for take-off?

Jo Tondeur, Natalie Pareja Roblin, Johan van Braak, Joke Voogt & Sarah Prestridge (2016)

Revista: Technology, Pedagogy and Education. Volume 26, 2017 - Issue 2

DOI: 10.1080/1475939X.2016.1193556

Link: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1475939X.2016.1193556

Abstract: Jo Tondeur (2017) explora las estrategias que tienen los profesores noveles a la hora de integrar prácticas con tecnologías y cuál es la relación entre esta integración y su formación como profesores. Ideas destacadas:

  • Los profesores novicios tienen una actitud positiva hacia la tecnología y valoran su uso en clases, sin embargo, en sus clases utilizan estrategias de enseñanza más clásicas.
  • Lo anterior se puede relacionar a la compleja transición que viven los nuevos docentes en sus primeros años de ejercicio, fenómeno conocido como “reality shock”'. Este reality shock se ve influido por la carga académica que asumen en su inserción laboral y por la cultura de la institución.
  • La experiencia previa con tecnologías en su formación como docentes son un factor relevante a la hora de determinar las prácticas con tecnologías que realizan en sus primeros años.

Moving education into the digital age: the contribution of teachers’ professional development

Twining, J. Raffaghelli, P. Albion & D. Knezek (2013)

Revista: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning

DOI: 10.1111/jcal.12031

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcal.12031/full

 

Abstract

This article introduces the main outcomes of discussions at EDUsummIT 2011 by the specific Technical Working Group on Teacher Professional Development (TWG3). The focus was to explore how professional development of teachers may ensure that teachers are better pre- pared to use information and communication technology (ICT) to promote 21st century learning. The article is organized into three main sections: a review of key literature on professional development of teachers (TPD), in general and with specific reference to ICT; a summary of the key points emerging from TWG3’s discussions; and recommendations for action.

On the basis of discussions held within the TWG3, the authors concluded that effective TPD requires changes at several levels of educational systems (political, institutional and individual), and that ICTs should be seen as an opportunity for introducing new goals, structures and roles that support these changes. It is significant that while many of the issues highlighted by the group are well established, addressing them continues to be problematic globally.

 

Differences in Actual and Perceived Online Skills: The Role of Gender

Hargittai & S. Shafer (2006)

Revista: Social Science Quarterly

DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00389.x

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00389.x/full

 

Abstract

Objective: The literature on gender and technology use finds that women and men differ significantly in their attitudes toward their technological abilities. Concurrently, existing work on science and math abilities of students suggests that such perceived differences do not always translate into actual disparities. We examine the yet-neglected area concerning gender differences with respect to Internet-use ability. In particular, we test how self-perceived abilities are related to actual abilities and how these may differ by gender.

Methods: We use new data on web-use skill to test empirically whether there are differences in men's and women's abilities to navigate online content. We draw on a diverse sample of adult Internet users to investigate the questions raised.

Results: Findings suggest that men and women do not differ greatly in their online abilities. However, we find that women's self-assessed skill is significantly lower than that of men.

Conclusions: Women's lower self-assessment regarding their web-use skills may affect significantly the extent of their online behavior and the types of uses to which they put the medium. We discuss the implications of these findings for social inequality.

¿Están los adultos en Chile preparados para desenvolverse en contextos digitales?

Negrón & R. Varela (2017)

Revista: MIDevidencias

Link: http://www.mideuc.cl/wp-content/uploads/2017/MidEvidencias-N13.pdf

 

En la actualidad, la capacidad de desenvolverse en contextos informáticos se vuelve cada vez más crítica, tanto para el ejercicio laboral como para la inserción social en diversos trámites y servicios que se proveen a través de medios digitales. La capacidad de resolver problemas en este contexto es central para el adecuado ejercicio de la habilidad digital de los adultos, y tiene un impacto importante en la economía del siglo XXI. En este escenario, la OCDE lideró el estudio internacional PIAAC, que evalúa esta habilidad en adultos de 16 a 65 años a través del uso de computador, y cuyos resultados se presentan en esta edición de MIDevidencias. Estos señalan una importante brecha entre Chile y el promedio de los países de la OCDE, tanto a nivel general, de género y de grupos etarios, incluso en las cohortes más jóvenes del país, quienes logran un desempeño similar a los grupos de mayor edad de la OCDE. Para revertir la tendencia anterior, se discuten algunas de las iniciativas de política pública impulsadas en Chile y su potencial impacto para mejorar esta habilidad, además se señalan consideraciones, a partir de los resultados presentados, que se deberían tener en cuenta para su implementación.

 

The Application of 21st Century ICT Literacy Model among Teacher Trainees

Mazalah Ahmad, Jamaludin Badusah, Ahmad Zamri Mansor, Aidah Abdul Karim, Fariza Khalid, Mohd Yusof Daud, Rosseni Din & Diana Fazleen Zulkefle (2016)

 

Publicación: TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

Link: http://www.tojet.net/articles/v15i3/15316.pdf


Abstract: Malaysian Ministry of Education (MOE) plans to utilize ICT in improving the quality of learning in Malaysia. This aspiration is clearly stated in Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2015. Hence, teaching profession of today has demanded teachers to acquire certain ICT skills as a way of exploring, discovering and accessing information besides applying such knowledge for teaching purpose in the classroom. Regardless of how advanced technology is, in ensuring its effectiveness to take place in the classroom, as a teacher, one needs to have a great fundamental of knowledge and confidence. This paper intends to report the level of ICT competency among teacher trainees. In this study, the ICT competency of participants (teacher trainees) was assessed using the 21st Century ICT Literacy Model. This quantitative study involved approximately 104 teacher trainees who registered at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) (National University of Malaysia) for 2015/2016 session. All data was collected using the determined questionnaire, and statistically analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The result indicates that teacher trainees in UKM have great ICT skills by scoring well in five out of seven domains in 21st Century ICT Literacy Model.

The digital natives as learners: Technology use patterns and approaches to learning

Thompson (2012)

Revista: Computers & Education

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.12.022

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131513000225?via%3Dihub

 

Abstract:

This study investigated the claims made in the popular press about the “digital native” generation as learners. Because students' lives today are saturated with digital media at a time when their brains are still developing, many popular press authors claim that this generation of students thinks and learns differently than any generation that has come before, but the evidence to support these claims is scarce. This study used a survey to gather data on the technology use of university freshmen, the degree to which they identified with the claims being made about their approaches to learning, and the productiveness (in terms of focused attention, deep processing, and persistence) of their approaches to learning.

Valid surveys were received from 388 freshmen at a large Midwestern land grant university. A factor analysis was used to identify meaningful patterns of technology use, and descriptive statistics, analysis of correlations, and extreme group t-tests were used to explore the relationships between technology use patterns and learning characteristics. The findings indicate some positive correlations between use of digital technology and the characteristics ascribed in the popular press to the digital native learners, and negative correlations between some categories of technology use and the productiveness of student learning behaviors. Overall, however, the small to moderate relationships suggest a less deterministic relationship between technology and learning than what the popular press writers claim.

 

Children and Young People's Home Use of ICT for Educational Purposes: The Impact on Attainment at Key Stages 1-4

Valentine, J. Marsh & BMRB (2005)

Publicación: Research Report, Department for Education and Skills, University of Leeds

Link: https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR672.pdf

 

Executive Summary

This report summarises the findings of a research project undertaken to understand the links between children’s educational uses of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at home and their performance and attainment at school. It is based on research conducted in the summer term, 2004, in 12 schools in England. This study aimed to:

  • Investigate the types and amount of home use of ICT by children and young people at Key Stages 1-4;
  • Establish the relationship between the types and amount of home use of ICT and children and young people’s attainment at school;
  • Identify the drivers for home use of ICT by pupils and what motivates pupils to choose (or not choose) to use ICT;
  • Establish the significance of digital divide issues in the relationship between home use of ICT and attainment.

 

The research involved three stages:

  • A self completion questionnaire survey of children and young people in years 6, 9 and 11 about their use of ICT, outside of school, across all curriculum subjects and for non-subject specific educational purposes. Questionnaires were sent home via primary schools for parents of year 2 children to complete.
  • On the basis of this national survey, 111 children and their parents/carers (from diverse social backgrounds and with diverse patterns of ICT use), as well as both primary and secondary teachers, were recruited to take part in qualitative interviews. In addition to the interviews, a log of computer-related activities was kept by 62 year 6, 9 and 11 pupils. 23 year 2 pupils kept logs over the period of one week
  • Analysis of the statistical relationship between children’s use of ICT out of school and their attainment in national tests and GCSEs.

Preparing for Life in a Digital Age The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study International Report

  1. Fraillon, J. Ainley, W. Schulz, T. Friedman & E. Gebhardt (2012)

 

Publicación: International Computer and Information Literacy Study

Link: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-14222-7

 

Introducción: Ability to use information and communication technologies (ICT) is an imperative for effective participation in today’s digital age. Schools worldwide are responding to the need to provide young people with that ability. But how effective are they in this regard? The IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) responded to this question by studying the extent to which young people have developed computer and information literacy (CIL), which is defined as the ability to use computers to investigate, create, and communicate with others at home, school, the workplace and in society.

 

The study was conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and builds on a series of earlier IEA studies focusing on ICT in education.

 

Data were gathered from almost 60,000 Grade 8 students in more than 3,300 schools from 21 education systems. This information was augmented by data from almost 35,000 teachers in those schools and by contextual data collected from school ICT-coordinators, school principals, and the ICILS national research centers.

 

The IEA ICILS team systematically investigated differences among the participating countries in students’ CIL outcomes, how participating countries were providing CIL-related education, and how confident teachers were in using ICT in their pedagogical practice. The team also explored differences within and across countries with respect to relationships between CIL education outcomes and student characteristics and school contexts.

 

In general, the study findings presented in this international report challenge the notion of young people as “digital natives” with a self-developed capacity to use digital technology. The large variations in CIL proficiency within and across the ICILS countries suggest it is naive to expect young people to develop CIL in the absence of coherent learning programs. Findings also indicate that system- and school-level planning needs to focus on increasing teacher expertise in using ICT for pedagogical purposes if such programs are to have the desired effect.

 

The report furthermore presents an empirically derived scale and description of CIL learning that educational stakeholders can reference when deliberating about CIL education and use to monitor change in CIL over time.

 

Converging traditions of research on media and information literacies: disciplinary, critical, and methodological issues

Sonia Livingstone, Elizabeth Van Couvering and Nancy Thumin (2009)

 

Publicación: Handbook of Research on New Literacies. Routledge, New York, USA

Link: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/23564/

 

The IEA International Study of Computer and Information Literacy (ICILS)

Julian Fraillon and John Ainley (2010)

 

Publicación: Australian Council for Educational Research

Link: https://s3.amazonaws.com/archivos.agenciaeducacion.cl/documentos-web/Estudios+Internacionales/ICILS/Descripcion_detallada_del_proyecto.pdf

 

Overview of ICILS

ICILS was designed to respond to a question of critical interest today: How well are students prepared for study, work, and life in the digital age? The study measures international differences in students’ computer and information literacy (CIL). This type of literacy refers to students’ ability to use computers to investigate, create, and communicate in order to participate effectively at home, at school, in the workplace, and in the community. The study collects a rich array of data from students in the study’s target grade in order to enable investigation of the factors that influence this suite of abilities in these students. This information provides education systems and policymakers with an important data source on the contexts and outcomes of CIL-related education programs.

Digital Literacy

Paul Gilster (1997)

 

Publicación: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Link: https://projects.ncsu.edu/meridian/jul99/downloads/diglit.pdf

Increasing inequalities in what we do online: A longitudinal cross sectional analysis of Internet activities among the Dutch population (2010 to 2013) over gender, age, education, and income

Alexander J.A.M. van Deursen, Jan A.G.M. van Dijk & Peter M. ten Klooster (2015)

 

Publication: Telematics and Informatics

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073658531400063X?via%3Dihub

 

Abstract: We investigate types of Internet activities among a representative sample of the Dutch population from 2010 to 2013. We examined usage patterns of seven types of Internet activities (i.e., information, news, personal development, commercial transaction, social interaction, leisure, and gaming) and related these patterns with gender, age, education, and income. Activities related to news, personal development, commercial transaction, and social interaction increased in popularity. For most capital enhancing activities, men, younger people, higher educated people, and people with higher than average incomes were prominent. These observations, however, are subject to change. The Internet seems to provide increasingly more capital-enhancing opportunities for those with higher education and income, which would accordingly reinforce their already strong positions in society.

Towards a unified Media-User Typology (MUT): A meta-analysis and review of the research literature on media-user typologies

Petter Bae Brandtzaeg (2010)

 

Publicación: Computers in Human Behavior

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563210000245?via%3Dihub

 

Abstract: Considering the increasingly complex media landscape and diversity of use, it is important to establish a common ground for identifying and describing the variety of ways in which people use new media technologies. Characterising the nature of media-user behaviour and distinctive user types is challenging and the literature offers little guidance in this regard. Hence, the present research aims to classify diverse user behaviours into meaningful categories of user types, according to the frequency of use, variety of use and content preferences. To reach a common framework, a review of the relevant research was conducted. An overview and meta-analysis of the literature (22 studies) regarding user typology was established and analysed with reference to (1) method, (2) theory, (3) media platform, (4) context and year, and (5) user types. Based on this examination, a unified Media-User Typology (MUT) is suggested. This initial MUT goes beyond the current research literature, by unifying all the existing and various user type models. A common MUT model can help the Human–Computer Interaction community to better understand both the typical users and the diversification of media-usage patterns more qualitatively. Developers of media systems can match the users’ preferences more precisely based on an MUT, in addition to identifying the target groups in the developing process. Finally, an MUT will allow a more nuanced approach when investigating the association between media usage and social implications such as the digital divide.

Conceptualizing and contextualizing digital citizenship in urban schools: Civic engagement, teacher education, and the placelessness of digital technologies

Ruth G. Kane, Nicholas Ng-A-Fook, Linda Radford, Jesse K. Butler (2016)

 

Publicación: Citizenship Education Research Journal (CERJ), 6(1)

Link: http://ejournals.ok.ubc.ca/index.php/CERJ/article/view/280

Abstract: In September 2014, pro-democracy demonstrators in Hong Kong mobilized to bypass online government censorships, connecting through their Smartphones using the FireChat app. In 2013, four Saskatchewan women used Facebook chat to speak out against the proposed Federal Bill-45, initiating the IdleNoMore movement. In each of these cases, digital technologies were used to bypass the “official” channels of civic engagement. In this way, digital technologies can provide spaces within which non-dominant social groups can network around – and mobilize against – the entrenched interests embedded in traditional media. At the same time, however, digital technologies can become obstacles to civic engagement. In the 2016 US election, for example, Facebook was at the centre of controversies over fake news and “digital echo chambers.” As citizenship educators, therefore how can we engage with digital technologies in a positive way, in order to create decentred spaces for civic engagement within the diversity of 21st century classrooms?  In what follows, we first review existing research within the scholarly and policy contexts of civic engagement in urban schools and 21st century learning skills. We then present the conceptualization of digital citizenship that guides our project, with particular emphasis on the different spaces in which urban youth can be (and are) civically engaged. Finally, we discuss the context of our project, present some initial findings, and reflect on some of the obstacles we have encountered so far. In particular, we discuss our attempt to develop faculty/school partnership model as a way making the curriculum more locally relevant and meaningful to learners.

Digital participation, digital literacy, and school subjects: A review of the policies, literature and evidence

Cassie Hague and Ben Williamson, Futurelab (2009)

 

Link: https://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/FUTL08

 

Abstract: This review aims to provide a critical introduction to the policies and research on the subjects of digital literacy and digital participation, seeking to show what they mean for classroom practice. Aimed at teachers and practitioners, especially those involved in continuing professional development programmes, and providers of teacher training or practice-based Masters courses, it reviews the major research and evidence on developing

digital literacy and digital participation in the classroom.

It highlights the fact that there is extensive theory,conceptual development and policy on digital literacy and digital participation, yet little evidence about how this can be translated into practice.

 

The review aims to support and enable practitioners to start developing informed strategies to promote digital participation in real school settings by introducing them

to a range of debates and key concepts and by relating these concepts to practice. It should be used as the basis for supporting the development of teachers’ professional

knowledge and skills in the critical use of digital media and technology for learning and for the enhancement of the curriculum. Throughout, examples of existing and emerging practices are included as breakout boxes to illustrate the conceptual content.

 

The document supports Futurelab’s Digital Participation project, a programme of research and development in collaboration with teachers in primary and secondary schools which seeks to model, trial and evaluate practical strategies for enhancing young people’s digital literacy in the classroom and their development of digital participation for life.

Digital Citizenship: The Internet, Society, and Participation (LIBRO)

Karen Mossberger, Caroline J. Tolbert, and Ramona S. McNeal (2007)

 

Publicación: The MIT Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. London, England

Link: https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/digital-citizenship


Abtract: Just as education has promoted democracy and economic growth, the Internet has the potential to benefit society as a whole. Digital citizenship, or the ability to participate in society online, promotes social inclusion. But statistics show that significant segments of the population are still excluded from digital citizenship. The authors of this book define digital citizens as those who are online daily. By focusing on frequent use, they reconceptualize debates about the digital divide to include both the means and the skills to participate online. They offer new evidence (drawn from recent national opinion surveys and Current Population Surveys) that technology use matters for wages and income, and for civic engagement and voting. Digital Citizenship examines three aspects of participation in society online: economic opportunity, democratic participation, and inclusion in prevailing forms of communication. The authors find that Internet use at work increases wages, with less-educated and minority workers receiving the greatest benefit, and that Internet use is significantly related to political participation, especially among the young. The authors examine in detail the gaps in technological access among minorities and the poor and predict that this digital inequality is not likely to disappear in the near future. Public policy, they argue, must address educational and technological disparities if we are to achieve full participation and citizenship in the twenty-first century.

Downloading inclusion: a statistical analysis of young people's digital communication inequalities

Esteve Sanz & Geomina Turlea (2015)

 

Publicación: Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research

Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13511610.2012.699652

 

Abstract: In this article we quantitatively explore digital inequalities in the context of the on-going transition toward a new communication landscape, defined by the emergence of a mass self-communication system as well as of a new culture of convergence around media consumption and production. Digital communication inequalities arise when technological, socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors influence active participation in this emerging communication system, a process that is and will continue to be particularly relevant among the young. While communication inequalities have been the object of much theoretical and qualitative research, their statistical analysis remains unattended. We used recent Eurostat micro-data to better understand how demographic, socio-economic and cultural factors affect communication inequalities in Europe, performing a detailed statistical analysis on the Spanish case. We found that the ability to contribute to the new media ecology by uploading self-created content is significantly correlated to the activity of downloading online material, an association that, at this stage, is more relevant than the one observed for other factors. At one point, young European “downloaders” start to upload and contribute, a cultural mechanism that is currently driving inclusion more strongly than the socio-economic avenues that are normally considered in the literature on the digital divide. In the conclusion of the study, we reflect on the policy implications of these findings.

Young People, Online Networks, and Social Inclusion

Tanya Notley (2009)

 

Publicación: J. of Computer-Mediated Communication

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01487.x/abstract


Abtract: This paper examines the ways 9 teenage Australians—identified as being ‘at risk’ of social exclusion—are using online networks to participate in society. The research finds that online networks provided participants with valuable opportunities for social inclusion. These findings are contextualized in relation to current Australian Government education and social policies that, on the one hand, aspire to support young people's social inclusion, and on the other restrict their ability to use online networks because of safety and health concerns. This study contends that by defining and understanding the social value of young people's online network use we can move toward a policy framework that not only addresses potential online risks, but supports equitable digital inclusion for young people.

The digital divide shifts to differences in usage

Alexander JAM van Deursen and Jan AGM van Dijk (2013)

 

Publicación: New Media Society

Link: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1461444813487959


Abstract: In a representative survey of the Dutch population we found that people with low levels of education and disabled people are using the Internet for more hours a day in their spare time than higher educated and employed populations. To explain this finding, we investigated what these people are doing online. The first contribution is a theoretically validated cluster of Internet usage types: information, news, personal development, social interaction, leisure, commercial transaction and gaming. The second contribution is that, based on this classification, we were able to identify a number of usage differences, including those demonstrated by people with different gender, age, education and Internet experience, that are often observed in digital divide literature. The general conclusion is that when the Internet matures, it will increasingly reflect known social, economic and cultural relationships of the offline world, including inequalities.

Differences in Actual and Perceived Online Skills: The Role of Gender

Eszter Hargittai & Steven Shafer (2006)

 

Publicación: Social Science Quarterly

Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00389.x/abstract

Abstract:

Objective: The literature on gender and technology use finds that women and men differ significantly in their attitudes toward their technological abilities. Concurrently, existing work on science and math abilities of students suggests that such perceived differences do not always translate into actual disparities. We examine the yet-neglected area concerning gender differences with respect to Internet-use ability. In particular, we test how self-perceived abilities are related to actual abilities and how these may differ by gender.

Methods: We use new data on web-use skill to test empirically whether there are differences in men's and women's abilities to navigate online content. We draw on a diverse sample of adult Internet users to investigate the questions raised.

Results: Findings suggest that men and women do not differ greatly in their online abilities. However, we find that women's self-assessed skill is significantly lower than that of men.

Conclusions: Women's lower self-assessment regarding their web-use skills may affect significantly the extent of their online behavior and the types of uses to which they put the medium. We discuss the implications of these findings for social inequality.

¿Están los adultos en Chile preparados para desenvolverse en contextos digitales? Evidencia de PIAAC

Jimena Negrón y Rafael Varela (2017)

 

Publicación: MIDevidencias - Centro UC Mide

Link: http://www.mideuc.cl/wp-content/uploads/2017/MidEvidencias-N13.pdf

Abstract: En la actualidad, la capacidad de desenvolverse en contextos informáticos se vuelve cada vez más crítica, tanto para el ejercicio laboral como para la inserción social en diversos trámites y servicios que se proveen a través de medios digitales. La capacidad de resolver problemas en este contexto es central para el adecuado ejercicio de la habilidad digital de los adultos, y tiene un impacto importante en la economía del siglo XXI. En este escenario, la OCDE lideró el estudio internacional PIAAC, que evalúa esta habilidad en adultos de 16 a 65 años a través del uso de computador, y cuyos resultados se presentan en esta edición de MIDevidencias. Estos señalan una importante brecha entre Chile y el promedio de los países de la OCDE, tanto a nivel general, de género y de grupos etarios, incluso en las cohortes más jóvenes del país, quienes logran un desempeño similar a los grupos de mayor edad de la OCDE. Para revertir la tendencia anterior, se discuten algunas de las iniciativas de política pública impulsadas en Chile y su potencial impacto para mejorar esta habilidad, además se señalan consideraciones, a partir de los resultados presentados, que se deberían tener en cuenta para su implementación.

Old Dogs, New Clicks: Digital Inequality in Skills and Uses among Older Adults

Eszter Hargittai & Kerry Dobransky (2017)

 

Publicación: Canadian Journal of Communication

Link: http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/3176

Abstract:

Research on digital inequality tends to collapse people above a certain age into one “older

adults” category, seemingly assuming that this is one homogeneous group when it comes to internet uses. Drawing on national survey data of adults in the United States, this article

examines the online skills and behaviour of this group. Findings reveal diversity among older adults in internet skills and uses. Those with higher education and higher income have higher-level Web-use skills. While those of higher socioeconomic status are also more likely to use the internet for diverse types of activities from which they may benefit, once controlling for skills, these differences are less pronounced.

The relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills: A systematic literature review

Ester van Laar,  Alexander J.A.M. van Deursen, Jan A.G.M. van Dijk & Jos de Haan (2017)

 

Publicación: Computers in Human Behavior

Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563217301590?via%3Dihub

Abstract: Innovation starts with people, making the human capital within the workforce decisive. In a fast-changing knowledge economy, 21st-century digital skills drive organizations' competitiveness and innovation capacity. Although such skills are seen as crucial, the digital aspect integrated with 21st-century skills is not yet sufficiently defined. The main objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relation between 21st-century skills and digital skills; and (2) provide a framework of 21st-century digital skills with conceptual dimensions and key operational components aimed at the knowledge worker. A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize the relevant academic literature concerned with 21st-century digital skills. In total, 1592 different articles were screened from which 75 articles met the predefined inclusion criteria. The results show that 21st-century skills are broader than digital skills – the list of mentioned skills is far more extensive. In addition, in contrast to digital skills, 21st-century skills are not necessarily underpinned by ICT. Furthermore, we identified seven core skills: technical, information management, communication, collaboration, creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Five contextual skills were also identified: ethical awareness, cultural awareness, flexibility, self-direction and lifelong learning.

Development and validation of the Internet Skills Scale (ISS)

Alexander J.A.M. van Deursen, Ellen J. Helsper & Rebecca Eynon (2014)

 

Publicación: Information, Communication & Society

Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1078834

Abstract: Although a number of instruments have been used to measure Internet skills in nationally representative surveys, there are several challenges with the measures available: incompleteness and over-simplification, conceptual ambiguity, and the use of self-reports. Here, we aim to overcome these challenges by developing a set of reliable measures for use in research, practice, and policy evaluations based on a strong conceptual framework. To achieve this goal, we carried out a literature review of skills-related studies to develop the initial Internet skills framework and associated instrument. After the development of this instrument, we used a three-fold approach to test the validity and reliability of the latent skill constructs and the corresponding items. The first step consisted of cognitive interviews held in both the UK and the Netherlands. Based on the cognitive interview results, we made several amendments to the proposed skill items to improve clarity. The second step consisted of a pilot survey of digital skills, both in the UK and in the Netherlands. During the final step, we examined the consistency of the five Internet skill scales and their characteristics when measured in a representative sample survey of Dutch Internet users. The result is a theoretical, empirically and cross-nationally consistent instrument consisting of five types of Internet skills: operational, navigation information, social, creative, and mobile.

Digital literacy and safety skills

N. Sonck, Sonia Livingstone, E. Kuiper and J. de Haan (2011)

 

Publicación: EU Kids Online

Link: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/33733/

Abstract: Summary Children’s digital skills were assessed by asking 25,000 European 9-16 year old internet users about their online activities, skills and self-efficacy.

The range of digital skills and online activities are linked. But many younger (11-13 year old) children lack key critical and safety skills. Also, skills are unequally distributed by socio-economic status. Developing safety skills may encourage other skills, and more skills are associated with more activities online. So, teaching children to be safer need not curtail and may even encourage online opportunities.

The digital skills paradox: how do digitally excluded youth develop skills to use the internet?

Rebecca Eynon & Anne Geniets (2014)

 

Publicación: Learning, Media and Technology

Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17439884.2014.1002845

 

Abstract:

Digital skills are an important aspect of ensuring that all young people are digitally included. Yet, there tends to be an assumption in popular discourse that young people can simply learn these skills by themselves. While experience of technologies forms an important part of the learning process, other resources (i.e., access to technology and support networks) plus clear motivations are required. Through in-depth interviews with 20 young people who are digitally excluded, this paper highlights the kinds of digital skills these young people find problematic, and the reasons why they find developing these skills so challenging. We demonstrate how poor access to technology, limited support networks and their current situation prevent these young people from gaining the experiences they need to support the development of their digital skills; and how lack of experience and inadequate skills limit the extent to which they perceive the internet to be valuable in their lives. These individual experiences, shaped very much by the wider social structure of which they are part, show how young people cannot simply be left to learn digital skills by themselves and that intervention is required to try to address some of the digital inequalities apparent in younger generations.

Internet skill levels increase, but gaps widen: a longitudinal cross-sectional analysis (2010–2013) among the Dutch population

Alexander J.A.M. van Deursen & Jan A.G.M. van Dijk (2014)

 

Publicación: Information, Communication & Society

Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369118X.2014.994544

 

Abstract: In the current contribution, we investigated how (1) the levels of operational, formal, information, and strategic internet skills changed between 2010 and 2013, and how (2) the observed skill patterns differ across gender, age, and education. All internet skills are measured among representative samples of the Dutch population in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Cross-sectional data are repeated to consider patterns of change at the aggregate level. The levels of operational and formal internet skills increased most. Information internet skill remained more or less consistent, and strategic internet skills only revealed a very small increase. Policies related to internet skills are largely aimed at improving basic skills among specific target groups. Future policies should shift towards improving information and strategic skills, which will be a more difficult challenge. Gender, age, and educational background are all important variables related to skill inequalities. As age increases, internet skill levels decrease. Information internet skills only increased for people aged over 65 years between 2010 and 2013. It seems that the gain in operational and formal internet skills among older people results in a better performance on information internet skills. The higher educated, the higher the levels of all four internet skills. The skills gap between the higher educated, on the one hand, and lower and middle educated, on the other hand, increased, while the gap between low and middle educated decreased. We expect that a particular share of inequality concerning information and strategic internet skills will remain and that these inequalities are long lasting.

Digital Skills: Unlocking the Information Society (LIBRO)

Jan A. G. M. van Dijk and & Alexander J. A. M. van Deursen (2014)

 

Link: http://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781137437020

Acerca del libro:

The first book to systematically discuss the skills and literacies needed to use digital media, particularly the Internet, van Dijk and van Deursen's clear and accessible work distinguishes digital skills, analyzes their roles and prevalence, and offers solutions from individual, educational, sociological, and policy perspectives.

Digital skills of internet natives: Different forms of digital literacy in a random sample of northern Italian high school students

Marco Gui & Gianluca Argentin (2011)

 

Publicación: New Media & Society

Link: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1461444810389751

Abstract:

This article outlines the main results and methodological challenges of a large-scale survey on actual digital skills. A test covering three main dimensions of digital literacy (theoretical, operational and evaluation skills) was administered to a random sample of 65 third-year high school classes, producing data on 980 students. Items include knowledge questions, situation-based questions and tasks to be performed online. A Rasch-type model was used to score the results. In agreement with the literature, the sample performed better in operational skills, while showing a particularly poor performance regarding evaluation skills (although for this dimension the test shows reliability issues). Through a robust regression analysis we investigate if a skills divide based on ascriptive differences, gender and family cultural background, exists among the students. It emerges that cultural background has a significant effect, which is stronger on operational skills, while gender shows a more definite impact on theoretical knowledge.

Measuring users’ internet skills: A review of past assessments and a look toward the future

Eden Litt (2013)

 

Publicación: New Media & Society

Link: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1461444813475424

Abstract: As the abilities to navigate and communicate using the internet increasingly play an important role in our social and professional lives, scholars must stay attuned to what

such internet skills entail and how everyday users differ when it comes to such abilities.

This article reviews the last decade of literature on measurements of everyday users’ basic internet skills, organizing how scholars have defined and measured the construct, and then systematically presenting what these past assessments tell us about internet skills and their relationship to other factors. Building on this foundation, the review concludes with a research agenda to advance this line of work, including a call for more valid and nuanced measures that capture the added layers of sophistication and sociability needed for today’s internet use.

Toward a Multifaceted Model of Internet Access for Understanding Digital Divides: An Empirical Investigation

Alexander J. A. M. van Deursen and Jan A. G. M. van Dijk (2015)

 

Publicación: The Information Society: An International Journal

Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01972243.2015.1069770

Abstract: In this investigation, a multifaceted model of Internet appropriation that encompasses four types of access—motivational, material, skills, and usage—is tested with a representative sample of the Dutch population. The analysis indicates that while the digital divide policies' focus has moved to skills and usage access, motivational and material access remain relevant since they are necessary through the entire process of Internet appropriation. Moreover, each type of access has its own ground of determination and they interact together to shape digital inequalities. Therefore, digital divide policies should address material, skills, and usage access simultaneously.

The compoundness and sequentiality of digital inequality

Alexander J.A.M. Van Deursen, Ellen Helsper, Rebecca Eynon, Jan A.G.M van Dijk

 

Publicación: International Journal of Communication

Link: http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/5739

Abstract: Through a survey with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, this paper examines compound digital exclusion, that is, whether a person who lacks a particular digital skill also lacks another kind of skill; whether a person who does not engage in a particular way online is also less likely to engage in other ways; and whether a person who does not achieve a certain outcome online is also less likely to achieve another type of outcome. We also tested sequential digital exclusion, whether a lower level of digital skills leads to lower levels of engagement with the Internet resulting in a lower likelihood of an individual achieving tangible outcomes. Both types of digital exclusion are a reality. A certain use can have a strong relation with an outcome in a different domain. Furthermore, those who achieve outcomes in one domain do not necessarily achieve outcomes in another domain. To get a comprehensive picture of the nature of digital exclusion, it is necessary to account for different domains in research.

The third-level digital divide: Who benefits most from being online?

 

Alexander J. A. M. van Deursen & Ellen J. Helsper ,

 

Publicación: Book Series: Studies in Media and Communications

Link: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/S2050-206020150000010002

Abstract:

Purpose

Research into the explanations of digital inclusion has moved from investigations of skills and usage to tangible outcomes, what we label here as the third-level digital divide. There is a lack of theoretical development about which types of people are most likely to benefit. Understanding how achieving outcomes of internet use is linked to other types of (dis)advantage is one of the most complex aspects of digital inclusion research because very few reliable and valid measures have been developed. In the current study we took a first step toward creating an operational framework for measuring tangible outcomes of internet use and linking these to the inequalities identified by digital divide research.

Methodology/approach

After having proposed a classification for internet outcomes, we assessed these outcomes in a representative sample of the Dutch population.

Findings

Our overall conclusion in relation to the more general relationship between offline resources and third-level digital divides is that the internet remains more beneficial for those with higher social status, not in terms of how extensively they use the technology but in what they achieve as a result of this use for several important domains.

Social implications

When information and services are offered online, the number of potential outcomes the internet has to offer increases. If individuals with higher social status are taking greater offline advantage from digital engagement than their lower status counterparts, existing offline inequalities could potentially be acerbated.

Internet Skills, Sources of Support, and Benefiting From Internet Use

Alexander J. A. M. van Deursena, Cédric Courtoisb & Jan A. G. M. van Dijka

 

Publicación: International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction

Link: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10447318.2013.858458

Abstract: This study added communication Internet skills to an existing skill framework of operational, formal, information, and strategic skills. The study investigated how people deal with inadequate skill levels by identifying support sources. Furthermore, we investigated which of the Internet skills actually matter for attaining beneficial

Internet outcomes and whether support sources employed moderate these effects. Results of a large-scale survey revealed three support patterns: independents, social support seekers, and formal help seekers. The newly added communication skills prove to be an important addition because they have an independent effect on beneficial Internet use. The group of independent Internet users benefited more from Internet use than formal help seekers and much more than social support seekers. Internet communication

skills hold the potential for achieving a high degree of independence in using the Internet by compensating for information skills so as to attain beneficial Internet outcomes.

Jo Tondeur (2017) explora las estrategias que tienen los profesores noveles a la hora de integrar prácticas con tecnologías y cuál es la relación entre esta integración y su formación como profesores.

Highlights:

  • Los profesores novicios tienen una actitud positiva hacia la tecnología y valoran su uso en clases, sin embargo en sus clases utilizan estrategias de enseñanza más clásicas.
  • Lo anterior se puede relacionar a la compleja transición que viven los nuevos docentes en sus primeros años de ejercicio, fenómeno conocido como 'reality shock'. Este reality shock se ve influido por la carga académica que asumen en su inserción laboral y por la cultura de la institución.
  • La experiencia previa con tecnologías en su formación como docentes son un factor relevante a la hora de determinar las prácticas con tecnologías que realizan en sus primero años.

 

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